Clustering squbs Services using ZooKeeper

Important Note: The ZooKeeper support in squbs is deprecated. Please use Akka clusters directly or move to more modern cluster coordinators.


squbs achieves clustering of services through the zkcluster module. zkcluster is an Akka extension which leverages ZooKeeper to manage akka cluster and partitions. It's similar to Akka Cluster for the functions of leadership and membership management. However, it's richer as it provides partitioning support and eliminates the need of entry-nodes.


We'll need a squbsconfig/zkcluster.conf file under the runtime directory. It should provide the following properties:

  • connectionString: a string delimiting all zookeeper nodes of an ensemble with comma
  • namespace: a string that is a valid path of znode, which will be the parent of all znodes created thereafter
  • segments: number of partition segments to scale the number of partitions

The following is an example of a zkcluster.conf file content:

zkCluster {
    connectionString = ",,"
    namespace = "clusteredservicedev"
    segments = 128

User Guide

Start by simply registering the extension as all normal akka extension. Then you access the zkClusterActor and use it as follows:

val zkClusterActor = ZkCluster(system).zkClusterActor

// Query the members in the cluster
zkClusterActor ! ZkQueryMembership

// Matching the response
case ZkMembership(members:Set[Address]) =>

// Query leader in the cluster
zkClusterActor ! ZkQueryLeadership
// Matching the response
case ZkLeadership(leader:Address) =>

// Query partition (expectedSize = None), create or resize (expectedSize = Some[Int])
zkClusterActor ! ZkQueryPartition(partitionKey:ByteString, notification:Option[Any] = None, expectedSize:Option[Int] = None, props:Array[Byte] = Array[Byte]())
// Matching the response
case ZkPartition(partitionKey:ByteString, members: Set[Address], zkPath:String, notification:Option[Any]) =>
case ZkPartitionNotFound(partitionKey: ByteString) =>

// Monitor or stop monitoring the partition change
zkClusterActor ! ZkMonitorPartition
zkClusterActor ! ZkStopMonitorPartition
// Matching the response
case ZkPartitionDiff(partitionKey: ByteString, onBoardMembers: Set[Address], dropOffMembers: Set[Address], props: Array[Byte] = Array.empty) =>

// Removing partition
zkClusterActor ! ZkRemovePartition(partitionKey:ByteString)
// Matching the response
case ZkPartitionRemoval(partitionKey:ByteString) =>

// List the partitions hosted by a certain member
zkClusterActor ! ZkListPartitions(address: Address)
// Matching the response
case ZkPartitions(partitionKeys:Seq[ByteString]) =>

// monitor the zookeeper connection state
val eventStream = context.system.eventStream
eventStream.subscribe(self, ZkConnected.getClass)
eventStream.subscribe(self, ZkReconnected.getClass)
eventStream.subscribe(self, ZkLost.getClass)
eventStream.subscribe(self, ZkSuspended.getClass)

// quit the cluster
zkCluster(system).zkClusterActor ! PoisonPill

// add listener when quitting the cluster
zkCluster(system).addShutdownListener(listener: () => Unit)


Add the following dependency to your build.sbt or scala build file:

"org.squbs" %% "squbs-zkcluster" % squbsVersion


Read this if you're making changes of zkcluster

  • Membership is based on zookeeper ephemeral nodes, closed session would alter leader with ZkMembershipChanged.
  • Leadership is based on curator framework's LeaderLatch, new election will broadcast ZkLeaderElected to all nodes.
  • Partitions are calculated by the leader and write to the znode by ZkPartitionsManager in leader node.
  • Partitions modification is only done by the leader, who asks its ZkPartitionsManager to enforce the modification.
  • ZkPartitionsManager of follower nodes will watch the znode change in Zookeeper. Once the leader change the paritions after rebalancing, ZkPartitionsManager in follower nodes will get notified and update their memory snapshot of the partition information.
  • Whoever needs to be notified by the partitions change ZkPartitionDiff should send ZkMonitorPartition to the cluster actor getting registered.

ZkMembershipMonitor is the actor type handling membership & leadership.

ZkPartitionsManager is the actor handling partitions management.

ZkClusterActor is the interfacing actor users should be sending queries to.