Circuit Breaker


Akka Streams and Akka HTTP are great technologies to build highly resilient systems. They provide back-pressure to ensure you do not overload the system and the slowness of one component does not cause its work queue to pile up and end up in memory leaks. But, we need another safeguard to ensure our service stays responsive in the event of external or internal failures, and have alternate paths to satisfying the requests/messages due to such failures. If a downstream service is not responding or slow, we could alternatively try another service or fetch cached results instead of back-pressuring the stream and potentially the whole system.

squbs introduces CircuitBreakerBidi Akka Streams GraphStage to provide circuit breaker functionality for streams.


Add the following dependency to your build.sbt or scala build file:

"org.squbs" %% "squbs-ext" % squbsVersion


The circuit breaker functionality is provided as a BidiFlow that can be connected to a flow via the join operator. CircuitBreakerBidi might potentially change the order of messages, so it requires a Context to be carried around. In addition, it needs to be able to uniquely identify each element for its internal mechanics. The requirement is that either the Context itself or a mapping from Context should be able to uniquely identify an element (see Context to Unique Id Mapping section for more details). Along with the Context, a Try is pushed downstream:

Circuit is Closed:

  • If an output msg is provided by the wrapped flow within the timeout, then (Success(msg), context) is passed down.
  • Otherwise, a (Failure(FlowTimeoutException()), context) is pushed to downstream.

Circuit is Open:

  • The result of fallback function, along with the context, is pushed to downstream if one provided
  • Otherwise, a (Failure(CircuitBreakerOpenException()), context) is pushed to downstream

Circuit is HalfOpen:

  • The first request/element is let to go through the wrapped flow, and the behavior should be same as Closed state.
  • Rest of the elements are short circuited and the behaviour is same to Open state.

The state of the circuit breaker is hold in a CircuitBreakerState implementation. The default implementation AtomicCircuitBreakerState is based on Atomic variables, which allows it to be updated concurrently across multiple flow materializations.

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.CircuitBreakerSettings

val circuitBreakerState = AtomicCircuitBreakerState("sample", 2, 100 milliseconds, 1 second)
val circuitBreakerSettings = CircuitBreakerSettings[String, String, UUID](circuitBreakerState)
val circuitBreakerBidiFlow = CircuitBreakerBidiFlow(circuitBreakerSettings)

val flow = Flow[(String, UUID)].mapAsyncUnordered(10) { elem =>
  (ref ? elem).mapTo[(String, UUID)]

Source("a" :: "b" :: "c" :: Nil)
  .map(s => (s, UUID.randomUUID()))

For Java, use CircuitBreakerSettings from the org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.japi package:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.japi.CircuitBreakerSettings;

final CircuitBreakerState circuitBreakerState =
                FiniteDuration.apply(100, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS),
                FiniteDuration.apply(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS),

CircuitBreakerSettings<String, String, UUID> circuitBreakerSettings =

final BidiFlow<Pair<String, UUID>, Pair<String, UUID>, Pair<String, UUID>, Pair<Try<String>, UUID>, NotUsed>
        circuitBreakerBidiFlow = CircuitBreakerBidiFlow.create(circuitBreakerSettings);

final Flow<Pair<String, UUID>, Pair<String, UUID>, NotUsed> flow =
        Flow.<Pair<String, UUID>>create()
                .mapAsyncUnordered(10, elem -> ask(ref, elem, 5000))
                .map(elem -> (Pair<String, UUID>)elem);

Source.from(Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c"))
        .map(s -> Pair.create(s, UUID.randomUUID()))
        .runWith(Sink.seq(), mat);

Fallback Response

CircuitBreakerSettings optionally takes a fallback function that gets called when the circuit is Open.


A function of type In => Try[Out] can be provided via withFallback function:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.CircuitBreakerSettings

val circuitBreakerSettings =
  CircuitBreakerSettings[String, String, UUID](circuitBreakerState)
    .withFallback((elem: String) => Success("Fallback Response!"))

A Function<In, Try<Out>> can be provided via withFallback function:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.japi.CircuitBreakerSettings;

CircuitBreakerSettings circuitBreakerSettings =
        CircuitBreakerSettings.<String, String, UUID>create(circuitBreakerState)
                .withFallback(s -> Success.apply("Fallback Response!"));

Failure Decider

By default, any Failure from the joined Flow is considered a problem and causes the circuit breaker failure count to be incremented. However, CircuitBreakerSettings also accepts an optional failureDecider to decide on whether an element passed by the joined Flow is actually considered a failure. For instance, if Circuit Breaker is joined with an Akka HTTP flow, a Success Http Response with status code 500 internal server error should be considered a failure.


A function of type Try[Out] => Boolean can be provided via withFailureDecider function. Below is an example where, along with any Failure message, a Success of HttpResponse with status code 400 and above is also considered a failure:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.CircuitBreakerSettings

val circuitBreakerSettings =
  CircuitBreakerSettings[HttpRequest, HttpResponse, UUID](circuitBreakerState)
    .withFailureDecider(tryHttpResponse => tryHttpResponse.isFailure || tryHttpResponse.get.status.isFailure)

A Function<Try<Out>, Boolean> can be provided via withFailureDecider function. Below is an example where, along with any Failure message, a Success of HttpResponse with status code 400 and above is also considered a failure:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.japi.CircuitBreakerSettings;

CircuitBreakerSettings circuitBreakerSettings =
        CircuitBreakerSettings.<HttpRequest, HttpResponse, UUID>create(circuitBreakerState)
                        tryHttpResponse -> tryHttpResponse.isFailure() || tryHttpResponse.get().status().isFailure());

Creating CircuitBreakerState from a configuration

While AtomicCircuitBreakerState has programmatic API for configuration, it also allows the configuration to be provided through a Config object. The Config can partially define some settings, and for the rest, it will fallback to default values. Please see here for the default circuit breaker configuration.

val config = ConfigFactory.parseString(
    |max-failures = 5
    |call-timeout = 50 ms
    |reset-timeout = 100 ms
    |max-reset-timeout = 2 seconds
    |exponential-backoff-factor = 2.0

val circuitBreakerState = AtomicCircuitBreakerState("sample", config)
Config config = ConfigFactory.parseString(
        "max-failures = 5\n" +
        "call-timeout = 50 ms\n" +
        "reset-timeout = 100 ms\n" +
        "max-reset-timeout = 2 seconds\n" +
        "exponential-backoff-factor = 2.0");

final CircuitBreakerState circuitBreakerState = AtomicCircuitBreakerState.create("sample", config, system);

Circuit Breaker across materializations

Please note, in many scenarios, the same circuit breaker instance is used across multiple materializations of the same flow. For such scenarios, make sure to use a CircuitBreakerState instance that can be modified concurrently. The default implementation AtomicCircuitBreakerState uses Atomic variables and can be used across multiple materializations. More implementations, e.g., Agent based, can be introduced in the future.

Context to Unique Id Mapping

Context itself might be used as a unique id. However, in many scenarios, Context contains more than the unique id itself or the unique id might be retrieved as a mapping from the Context. squbs allows different options to provide a unique id:

  • Context itself is a type that can be used as a unique id, e.g., Int, Long, java.util.UUID
  • Context extends UniqueId.Provider and implements def uniqueId
  • Context is wrapped with UniqueId.Envelope
  • Context is mapped to a unique id by calling a function

With the first three options, a unique id can be retrieved directly through the context. For the last option, CircuitBreakerSettings allows a function to be provided.


A function of type Context => Option[Any] can be provided via withUniqueIdMapper function:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.CircuitBreakerSettings

case class MyContext(s: String, id: Long)

val circuitBreakerSettings =
  CircuitBreakerSettings[String, String, MyContext](circuitBreakerState)
    .withUniqueIdMapper((context: MyContext) => Some(

A Function<Context, Optional<Any>> can be provided via withUniqueIdMapper function:

import org.squbs.streams.circuitbreaker.japi.CircuitBreakerSettings;

class MyContext {
    private String s;
    private long id;

    public MyContext(String s, long id) {
        this.s = s; = id;

    public long id() {
        return id;

CircuitBreakerSettings circuitBreakerSettings =
        CircuitBreakerSettings.<String, String, MyContext>create(circuitBreakerState)
                .withUniqueIdMapper(context -> Optional.of(;


An ActorRef can be subscribed to receive all TransitionEvents or any transition event that it is intered in, e.g., Closed, Open, HalfOpen.


Here is an example that registers an ActorRef to receive events when circuit transitions to Open state:

circuitBreakerState.subscribe(self, Open)

Here is an example that registers an ActorRef to receive events when circuit transitions to Open state:

circuitBreakerState.subscribe(getRef(), Open.instance());


The CircuitBreakerState keeps Codahale meters for:

  • Success count
  • Failure count
  • Short circuit times

It also keeps a Gauge for the circuit breaker state.

To differentiate metrics across instance, CircuitBreakerState implementation require a name to passed in.

CircuitBreakerState also allows a MetricRegistry instance to be passed in. If no MetricRegistry is passed in, it creates one internally.

Potential effects of Circuit Open state on throughput

If the upstream does not control the throughput, then the throughput of the stream might temporarily increase once the circuit is Open: The downstream demand will be addressed with short circuit/fallback messages, which might (or might not) take less time than it takes the joined Flow to process an element. To eliminate this problem, a throttle can be applied specifically for circuit breaker Open messages (or fallback messages).